DRY TORTUGAS AND LOGGERHEAD KEY LIGHTHOUSE

Pages 32, 54, 204, 206

The Dry Tortugas is a group of seven small islands (Garden, Loggerhead, Bush, Long, East, Hospital, Middle) located approximately 70 miles west of Key West that are only accessible by seaplane or boat. The islands were first discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1513 and has since been transformed into a national park (“Dry Tortugas History”). The group of islands were named after the many sea turtle that inhabited the waters and the lack of drinking water. The Fort Jefferson National Monument began construction on Garden Key in 1935 but wasn’t finished until 1983 (“History & Culture”). Loggerhead Key is the largest island that makes up the Dry Tortugas. On August 18, 1856, the Sand Key lighthouse was built to prevent boat wrecks (“Dry Tortugas Lighthouse”). In 1930, Hemingway and friends were stranded on Garden Island for two weeks due to bad weather (Curnutt 50). The first mention of the Dry Tortugas comes when Harry 

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Morgan discusses transporting immigrants to Loggerhead Key with Mr. Sing (Hemingway 32). After Harry kills Mr. Sing, he disposes of his body near the old coaling dock (54). There are two abandoned coaling docks on Garden Key. The northern one is closed to the public, but the southern one is a popular snorkeling site. It’s not clear which one Hemingway is referring to (Curnutt 63). Later in the novel, Richard Gordon returns from the Tortugas where he was involved in searching for Harry (Hemingway 204, 206).

View of the Loggerhead Key Lighthouse from afar ("Loggerhead Key").

COJONES

Page 47

Curnutt claims that the cojones is the most loaded word in the novel and is used half a dozen times. It is the Spanish word for testicles and, according to Curnutt, is a representation of Hemingway's overbearing masculinity and obsession with machismo. Curnutt further writes that perhaps the reason behind the overuse of this word is an altercation that occurred between Hemingway and Max Eastman, a critic that made negative comments about Hemingway's work Death in the Afternoon roughly five 

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Maxwell Perkins sitting at his desk (Ravenna).

years prior. The confrontation took place a mere two months before To Have and Have Not was published at Maxwell Perkins's office, who was Scribner's editor and was highly publicized in newspapers as Hemingway boasted to The New York Times about slapping Eastman. 

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Max Eastman posing for a picture (Wald).

PART ONE: CHAPTERS 1-5

GERARDO MACHADO

Page 4

The beginning of the novel To Have and Have Not is set in Cuba during a period of extreme violence. The president mentioned in the aforementioned quote is Gerardo Machado who was the President of Cuba from 1925 to 1933. Machado was commonly known as El Supremo by his supporters but behind closed doors was referred to as a tropical Mussolini. Kirk Curnutt writes, "As the Depression deflated the price of sugar and bled dry the Cuban tourism market, Machado responded to growing unrest by clamping down on opposition newspapers and rounding up dissenters. By the time Hemingway began staying in Havana, stories of the despot's abuses had grown macabre: he was said to feed his enemies to sharks" (Curnutt 19). 

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Gerardo Machado served as the President of Cuba from 1925 to 1933 (“Gerardo Machado Seated, Havana”)

"'CAN CHINAMEN TALK?'" 

Page 5

Here, Pacho is referring to the Chinese immigrants in Cuba at the time, thereby indirectly introducing Mr. Sing's character before he makes an appearance. Chinese immigration to Cuba began between the 1840s and 1850s to work in the sugar fields as an experiment for inexpensive labor methods. Some Chinese immigrants also arrived from the United States for commercial trade. However, the treatment of Chinese immigrants in Cuba would have been considered abhorrant by contemporary standards as they were heavily discriminated against even though racial tensions between the Cubans and the Chinese immigrants were not in the limelight during routine, day-to-day interaction. The condescending manner in which the Chinese immigrants were viewed can be observed in Hemingway's novel To Have and Have Not. Duvon

Corbitt addresses the bigotry towards Chinese immigrants in his article, published in 1944, titled Chinese Immigrants in Cuba. Corbitt writes,"Race prejudice against the Chinese is to be found, but this is easier to sense after long residence in the island than to see through study or observation. It is not, however, a feeling of bitterness. The good terms on which almost all Chinese live with their Cuban neighbors, and relatively numerous marriages between the races, would seem to belie the fact that prejudice exists; nevertheless, close contact with the situation will reveal that the Cubans generally look on the Chinese as social, and even intellectual inferiors" (Corbitt 131). ​​The theme of Chinese immigration plays a major role in the beginning of To Have and Have Not and can be traced back to Hemingway's interaction with Chinese soldiers as captured above. 

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Martha Gellhorn and Ernest Hemingway with unidentified Chinese military officers, Chungking, China, 1941. Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

EDDY

Page 8

Eddy, who is protagonist Harry Morgan's mate, was based on a man named Joe Lowe. Lowe was a Key West fisherman who worked for Joe Russell, one of Hemingway's close friends. Curnutt writes, "Harry Morgan's mate was based upon Joe Lowe (1887-1935), a Key West fisherman who worked for Joe Russell on the Anita during the summers of 1932 and 1933. Lowe was among the casualties of the 1935 Labor Day hurricane" (Curnutt 28).  

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Depicts left to right: Ernest Hemingway, Carlos Gutiérrez, Joe Russell, and Joe Lowe on The Anita in Key West, 1933 (Michael).

PAN AMERICAN AIRWAYS

Page 26

Hemingway references Pam American Airways, since it wold have been the only commercial airline flying with passengers between Key West and Cuba. Hemingway was friends with the founding partner of Pam American founding partner, George Grant Mason, who appears later on in To Have and Have Not in part 3. (Curnutt 41). 

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The birthplace of Pan American Airways, renamed First Flight Island Restaurant and Brewery, is located at 301 Whitehead Street ("Gallery").

"'HUNDRED THOUSAND CHINAMEN HERE. ONLY THREE CHINESE WOMEN'" 

Page 36

Although this was an exaggerated statistic, it was not uncommon for the Cuban government to practice harsher restriction on Chinese women immigrants than their male counterparts. Curnutt writes, "An 1861 census reports that out of 34,834 Chinese immigrants in Cuba, 57 were women. Ten years later, the Chinese population expanded to 40,261 while the number of women rose only by 9—yes, 9—to 66 (De La Torre 229)" (Curnutt 51). 

COJIMAR

Page 42

Cojimar is a small fishing village that can be found six miles East of Havana, Cuba. Today, it is famously known for the setting from which Santiago in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea sets out to embark on his journey. Hemingway used this small fishing island to dock his boat, The Pilar, and therefore it became a popular site even after Hemingway's death as literature lovers and tourists visited the docks to take pictures with Gregario Fuentes, The Pilar's Cuban first mate, who lived in Cojimar until his death at age 104 in January 2002 (Curnutt 54). 

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A man on a small boat in Cojimar waters (Montero).

SAND KEY LIGHTHOUSE

Pages 62, 63. 67, 71, 156

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Sand Key, originally known as Cayos Arena by early Spanish explorers, was completed in 1853 and is located 7 miles west of Key West (“Sand Key Sanctuary Preservation Area”). Since the lighthouse was built on sand, the foundation was not stable. Hurricanes damage the structure regularly, costing thousands of dollars to repair (Josh). When the U.S. Coast Guard took control of the lighthouse in 1941, the implemented an automated system, eliminating the need for a lighthouse keeper (“Sand Key Lighthouse”). As Harry is coming back from his trip from Cuba, he sees the lighthouse and knows he is on the right path home (Hemingway 63).

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Helicopter in 2005. Photo Courtesy of Navy Newstand" ("Sand Key Lighthouse").

LA CONCHA HOTEL

Pages 63 and 86

The La Concha Hotel was first opened in 1926 and was developed by Carl Aubuchon to be a luxury resort. The seven story building is located at 430 Duval Street and was considered to be “the height of elegance and modern convenience” (“La Concha Hotel History”). Within six months of the 1929 stock market crash, the struggling hotel was renamed the Key West Colonial Hotel. However, locals still referred to it as the La Concha. Tennessee Williams, another famous writer, finished penning his most famous play A Streetcar Named Desire and Summer and Smoke in the La Concha in 1947 (“La Concha Hotel”) (Curnutt 65). Harry alludes to the hotel twice, and in both instances, notes that the building can be seen on Key West’s skyline (Hemingway 63, 86). Indeed, the La Concha Hotel was the tallest building on Key West (Curnutt 65).

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The La Concha Hotel on a bright, sunny Florida day ("Key West Hotels Near Margaritaville").

EASTERN / WESTERN DRY ROCKS

Page 63

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Maps of the Eastern and Western Dry Rocks ("Eastern Dry Rocks Sanctuary Preservation Area" and "Map of Bouys at Western Dry Rocks").

The Eastern and Western Dry Rocks are both a sanctuary preservation area that contain a concentration of reef habitats. The Eastern Dry Rocks are located a half-mile east of Rock Key (“Eastern Dry Rocks Sanctuary Preservation Area”). The Western Dry Rocks are located approximately a couple miles west of the Eastern Dry Rocks. After passing through the Dry Rocks, Harry describes the Key West skyline (Hemingway 63).

GRACIE ALLEN

Page 64

Gracie Allen was a well known comedienne during her time and is best remembered as the wife of George Burns. her trademark charm was to play dumb in combination with her innocent personality. Both Allen and her husband burns were radio stars who were friends with Gertrude Stein, Hemingway's close friend and mentor, and was the only mutual connection between Hemingway and Allen (Curnutt 65). 

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Gracie Allen posing with George Burns (Wikipedia).

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