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Aerial view of Woman Key next to Ballast Key (McDonald).



Page 67

American Shoal Lighthouse is located 19 miles southeast of Key West (Curnutt 67). It was built in 1880, making it the last of the lighthouse built in the Keys. The 124-foot structure was abandoned in 2015 and sustained damage by hurricane Irma in 2017 (“The 6 Lighthouses”). Harry mentions the lighthouse in chapter 6 after the crew had been floating overnight and they were trying to locate their position (Hemingway 67).

An aerial view of the American Shoal Lighthouse (“American Shoal Lighthouse”).


Pages 68 and 78


Woman Key is one islet apart of a group called Mule Keys and is located 13 miles west of Key West. Most of the islet is closed to protect wildlife; however, there are sections of the water open for snorkeling. Loggerhead turtles, several different species of wading birds, and shorebirds are common in the area (Sanctuary). Harry stayed at the mangrove covered island to layover for the night and dump liquor before Captain Willie came to meet him and his wounded deckhand, Wesley (Hemingway 68-84).


Page 69

Here, Hemingway introduces protagonist Harry Morgan's newest mate. Curnutt claims that a possible explanation as to why Hemingway did not revive Morgan's previous mate, Eddy, is because Eddy's character is based on Joe Lowe, who passed away on Lower Matecumbe Key because of the Labor Day Hurricane of September 1935 (Curnutt 68). 

Page 76


Scholars often speculate that Captain Willie Adams's character is based on Edward "Bra" Saunders, who was Hemingway's first Key West fishing guide. Saunders was born in 1876 in the Bahamas and died in 1949. Saunders moved to the Keys as a child and by 1928, when he met Hemingway, had become one of the most experienced guides working in the area. Curnutt writes, "Saunders captained the rowdy 1928 and 1929 fishing expeditions that Hemingway arranged for friends whom he collectively dubbed 'The Mob,' including John Dos Passos, painter Waldo Peirce, Bill Smith, and Henry "Mike" Strater" (Curnutt 70). 

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Edward "Bra" Saunders poses with a fish.


Page 82

Edgar Hoover was the first director of the FBI who led a "War on Crime" campaign that was fueled by his hatred towards criminals that were being treated as heroes. Hoover created a file on Hemingway five years after To Have and Have Not was published. Curnutt writes, "Hoover appears not to have known or at least not to have cared about Hemingway until the early 1940s. The author's activities in Cuba during World War II, when Hemingway led U-boat surveillances aboard The Pilar, both concerned and irked the director. The FBI opened a file on Hemingway on 8 October 1942; it would run until 1974, more than a decade after he author's suicide (and two years after Hoover's)" (Curnutt 74). 


A portrait of J. Edgar Hoover circa 1920 ("J. Edgar Hoover, May 10, 1924 - May 2, 1972”).


Pages 85, 86, 155

The historic Garrison Bight Marina is a 20-acre facility located at 1801 N Roosevelt Boulevard, on the northwest end of Key West (“The City of Key West, Florida”). The destination is home to the largest fleet of boats on the island, Charter Boat Row. Hemingway’s reference is not to be confused with the Garrison Bight channel because the waterway was dredged in the late 1940s (Curnutt 77). Harry says he will dock at the Marina after being wounded on one of his rum-running missions (Hemingway 85). He also alludes to the Marina amongst the other iconic places in Key West (155). 


Aerial view of the Garrison Bight Marina (“Key West City Marina at Garrison Bight”).


Page 85

Not to be confused with the residential city on the west coast of Florida with the same name, Boca Grande is a islet apart of the Mule Keys that serves as wildlife refuge 14 miles west of Key West (Sanctuary). In chapter 8, Captain Willie’s boat is headed towards the land mass after Harry was shot by the Cubans (Hemingway 85).

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Satellite view of Boca Grande Key from Google Maps


Page 86, 110, 155, 199

The Trumbo Point Naval Annex was established after Henry Flagler needed more land to build the grand terminal for his Florida East Coast Railway. He decided to hire Howard Trumbo, the head engineer of Trumbo American Dredging Company, to create an extra 134 acres of Key West. The United States Navy identified Trumbo as an area with great tactical value; thus, they purchased it from Flagler on July 13, 1917 for $1 million (“Trumbo Naval Air Station”). In addition, there was tension between the two parties because the Navy didn’t want Flagler to build the station without the proper approval (Curnutt 78). However, the acquisition proved successful as the base was pivotal in winning both WWI and WWII (“Trumbo Naval Air Station”). Since the overseas highway has not been completely built until 1938 (after Hemingway’s time in Key West), a dock at Trumbo Point was reserved for ferries that transported cars to and from Key West (Curnutt 78).  Harry sees the ferries lined up


at the Trumbo docks as he makes his way to Garrison Bight after being shot in the arm (Hemingway 86). He also records the night watchman's rounds and notices that he spends most of his time at the outer gate of the Navy Yard (110). Next, he alludes to the Navy yard buildings as a part of several iconic buildings on the Key West skyline (155). The Navy Yard is also where they towed Harry’s boat after finding it off Matecumbe (199).

Aerial photo of Naval Air Station Key West's Trumbo Point Annex (“Trumbo Point Annex Image”).


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